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The art taught by Miura was named wa (which is equivalent to yawara), and the art taught by Terada was named ju (which is equivalent to jujutsu)...

Jujutsu Becomes Judo #1

Turning to the origin of jujutsu, as is to be expected various accounts are given.

In the Bugei Sho-den, which is a collection of brief biographies of eminent masters of the different arts of fighting practiced in feudal times--accounts are given of kogusoku and ken, which is equivalent to kempo these two being distinguished from each other, the former as the art of seizing, and the latter as the art of gaining victory by pliancy. The art of kogusoku is ascribed to Takenouchi, a native of Sakushiu. It is said that in the first year of Tenbun, 1532, a sorcerer came unexpectedly to the house of Takenouchi and taught him five methods of seizing a man; he then went off and he could not tell whither he went.

The origin of the art of ken is stated thus: There came to Japan from China a man named Chingempin, who left that country after the fall of the Min dynasty, and lived in Kokushoji (a Buddhist temple) in Azabu in Yedo, as Tokyo was then called. There also in the same temple lived three ronins, Fukuno, Isogai and Miura, One day Chingempin told them that in China there was an art of seizing a man, which he had seen himself practiced but had not learned its principles. On hearing this, these three men made investigations and afterwards became very skillful.

The origin of ju, which is equivalent to jujutsu, is traced to these three men, from whom it spread throughout the country. In the same account the principles of the art are stated, and the following are their free translations:

1. Not to resist an opponent, but to gain victory by pliancy.

2. Not to aim at frequent victory.

3. Not to be led into scolding (bickering) by keeping the mind (empty) composed and calm.

4. Not to be disturbed by things.

5. Not to be agitated under any emergency but to be tranquil.

6. And for all these, rules for respiration are considered important.

In the Bujutsu riu soroku, a book of biographies of the originators of different schools of the arts of Japanese warfare, exactly the same account is given of the origin of kogusoku, and a similar account of jujutsu; and it is also stated that the time in which Miura lived was about 1560.

In the Chinomaki a certificate given by teachers of the Kito school to their pupils, we find a brief history of the art and its main principles as taught by that school. In it, reference is made to a writing dated the 11th year of Kuanbun (1671).

According to it there was once a man named Fukuno who studied the art of fighting without weapons and so excelled in the art that he defeated people very much stronger than himself. The art at first did not spread to any great extent; but two of his students became especially noted, who were founders of


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